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Acute Ischemic Stroke

  1. Intravenous Thrombolysis: 
    1. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. (N Engl J Med.1995;333:1581-1587. ) 
    2. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS II) (N Engl J Med.1995;333:1581-1587.) 
  2. Intraarterial Thrombolysis:
    1. Intra-arterial Prourokinase for Acute Ischemic Stroke The PROACT II Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial (JAMA. 1999 Dec 1;282(21):2003-11.)  
  3. Bridging Trials:
    1. Combined Intravenous and Intra-Arterial Recanalization for Acute Ischemic Stroke: The Interventional Management of Stroke Study (Stroke 2004;35:904–12)
    2. The Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) II Study (Stroke.2007; 38: 2127-2135) 
  4. Mechanical Thrombectomy
    1. Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke Final Results of the Multi MERCI Trial (Stroke.2008; 39: 1205-1212)
    2. The Penumbra Pivotal Stroke Trial Safety and Effectiveness of a New Generation of Mechanical Devices for Clot Removal in Intracranial Large Vessel Occlusive Disease (Stroke.2009; 40: 2761-2768)

Intracerebral Hemorrhage

  1. Surgical treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage (STICH) A single-center, randomized clinical trial (Neurology November 1, 1998vol. 51 no. 5 1359-1363)


  1. Unruptured Aneurysms
    1. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms — Risk of Rupture and Risks of Surgical Intervention (N Engl J Med 1998; 339:1725-1733 )
    2. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history, clinical outcome, and risks of surgical and endovascular treatment. (The Lancet, Volume 362, Issue 9378, Pages 103 - 110, 12 July 2003)
  2. Ruptured Aneurysms
    1. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion (The Lancet, Volume 366, Issue 9488, Pages 809 - 817, 3 September 2005)

Intracranial Atherosclerosis

  1. Comparison of Warfarin and Aspirin for Symptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis (N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1305-1316 March 31, 2005)
  2. Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Therapy for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis (N Engl J Med 2011; 365:993-1003 September 15, 2011)

Carotid Artery Disease

  1. Stenting versus Endarterectomy for Treatment of Carotid-Artery Stenosis (N Engl J Med 2010; 363:11-23 July 1, 2010
  2. Protected Carotid-Artery Stenting versus Endarterectomy in High-Risk Patients (N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1493-1501 October 7, 2004)



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